Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 1
New industrialization of the agricultural sector of the Russian economy or a change in the management paradigm in science and business
The article is devoted to one of the most important problems in the agricultural sector of the economy of the Russian Federation in modern geopolitical conditions - accelerated industrialization. The need for a change of management paradigms in both the scientific and technological development of agriculture in the country and the entrepreneurial thinking of agricultural producers is substantiated. The high dependence of the agricultural sector on Western technologies, technical means, seeds of agricultural crops, breeding products, active substances necessary for the production of pesticides was noted. All this requires a critical import substitution of the means of production in the country with the active participation of the state. It is shown that in the conditions of external restrictions, domestic agricultural production faced an increase in prices for materials, seeds, machinery and fuel, which combined with the problem of overcoming sanctions and complicated logistics, as well as with a decrease in effective demand in the country. A set of operational measures developed by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation to provide agricultural producers with mineral fertilizers, technical means, and seed material and plant protection products in a situation of high uncertainty is presented. The paper shows the need for the formation of industry innovation systems, as well as an integrated inter sectoral program with a detailed plan for its implementation. A conceptual model of a "separate" innovation system in the agricultural sector of the country's economy is presented. The role and importance of the RAS in the management of scientific research and development in the interests of the development of the agricultural sector and high-tech industries are shown. The key technological directions in the development of the agro-industrial complex and ways of their implementation in agricultural production in order to accelerate its industrialization are proposed.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 2
Resource potential reproduction management based on ecosystem approach
Taking into account the peculiarities of the current economic situation and the need to ensure high-quality economic growth of agriculture as one of the priorities of the country's development under sanctions pressure, the effective use of available resources and ensuring their reproduction is one of the most important tasks. The management of the resource potential of agriculture should be based on the interconnection and interdependence of agricultural production, ecological processes, the human environment and, thereby, integrate economics, ecology and social processes. In this regard, we consider it appropriate to use an ecosystem approach when assessing the availability and efficiency of using the resource potential of agriculture and its reproduction. A model of the organizational and economic mechanism for managing the reproduction of the resource potential of agricultural organizations has been developed.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 3
Methodological approach to assessing the socially oriented mechanism of adaptation of agro-industrial complex business entities to structural transformation
The article presents a methodological approach containing a sequence of calculations for assessing the socially oriented mechanism of the adaptation activity of economic entities to structural transformation. The assessment was carried out on the basis of indicators characterizing different aspects of the economic activities of organizations: 1) social - the size of the average monthly salary per average annual employee; 2) production and commercial - profit margin; 3) financial and economic - tax burden. Calculations were carried out for 2019-2021 in 11 regions of the Central Federal District. The calculation of the integral indicator determined the leaders: by agricultural organizations - Bryansk region, by food production organizations - Kursk region. It was concluded that structural shifts in the short term have a discouraging effect on the mechanism of adaptation of business entities and an increase in their entrepreneurial activity. It is necessary to develop measures not only in the organizational and economic, but also in the socio-labour mechanism of adaptation.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 4
Legal status and coordination of material interests of the parties to remote digital investment transactions in agriculture
The article overcomes the lack of the existing approach to the organization of production and marketing activities in organic agriculture, associated with the distancing of producers from buyers. For this, a new approach is proposed, based on remote digital investment transactions, the development of which is the purpose of the article. To justify the feasibility of implementing remote digital investment transactions in agriculture, their advantages are determined. The materials of the “Global Food Security Index 2022” for 2022 serve as an information-empirical base for the study. Using the method of correlation analysis, the relationship between the indicators of the implementation of remote-digital investment transactions in agriculture and the indicators of the quality and efficiency of organizing the activities of farms is determined. The sample includes all 23 countries with incomes above the world average, including Russia. Based on the identified advantages, a promising procedure for establishing the legal status and coordinating the material interests of the parties to remote digital investment transactions, including individuals as private investors, has been developed using the example of organic agriculture. As a result, a systematic idea was formed about the economic, legal and technical aspects of coordinating the material interests of the parties to remote-digital investment transactions, including individuals as private investors, in agriculture. The author's approach will more fully reveal the potential for improving the efficiency of farms based on the digital economy in the segment of organic agriculture.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 5
Reproduction of fixed assets of agricultural organizations
The purpose of the study is to develop theoretical provisions for assessing the reproduction of agricultural fixed assets. Fixed assets are an integral and necessary condition for agricultural production, on which the level of production, working conditions, its productivity and efficiency, safety and quality of products, and the achievement of food security of the country largely depend. In this connection, the analysis of the system of indicators for assessing the security and efficiency of the use of fixed assets in economic literature was carried out. This made it possible to choose the most rational form of reproduction of fixed assets and classify agricultural enterprises into six groups of reproduction, depending on the growth rate of fixed assets and the growth rate of capital return. The proposed system of indicators makes it possible to characterize the type and type of reproduction at the agricultural enterprise.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 6
Analysis of the level of financial security of agricultural organizations in the region
The purpose of article was to analyze the level of financial security as an element of ensuring the economic security of agricultural enterprises in the region. In the course of the analysis of the selected indicators, it was determined that during the study period there was an increase in financial stability, solvency and efficiency of agricultural organizations in the Ulyanovsk region. As a result of the growth of integral indicators from 2017 to 2021 the total index of financial security of agricultural enterprises in the Ulyanovsk region increased and began to correspond to a high level. Grouping the data of 145 organizations engaged in the production of agricultural products in the Ulyanovsk region, according to the value of the integral index of financial security, made it possible to determine that most of the organizations in the industry are characterized by an average level of financial security.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 7
Electronic resources as a means of developing universal competencies of personnel for export-import operations
The article deals with the problems of increasing the efficiency of export-import operations through the formation and development of universal competencies of the industry personnel. The most important areas for the development of export-import activities are: attracting foreign investors; development of the technical equipment of the industry; retention of Russia's position in the developed sales markets, and expansion of sales markets; activation of international cooperation. The article presents promising proposals for the development of universal competencies of personnel, which are a significant factor in increasing the efficiency of export-import operations. The competitiveness of the industry is determined by human resources. In the modern world, industry personnel should be able to carry out not only routine functional duties, but also monitor sales markets, search for promising partners, and innovate. The so-called “soft skills”, or universal competencies are necessary for effective professional activity. The development of these competencies begins in the learning process and requires special attention from educational institutions, which should provide future farmers with the opportunity to master the skill of working with information flows through electronic resources. In addition, a significant factor in effective professional activity is the developed skill to apply modern communication technologies, including in a foreign language in the professional and academic sphere.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 8
Staffing for agriculture (by the example of the Komi Republic)
To ensure the sustainable and successful development of the agricultural industry, qualified personnel required. Agricultural organizations experienced a serious shortage of highly qualified personnel, which a deterrent to the innovative development of the agricultural sector in the context of digitalization and modern market realities. The current shortage of personnel for the Russian agricultural sector is 88 thousand people. Over the past thirty years, the average annual number of people employed in agriculture in the country has decreased by 2 times, and in the Komi Republic by 10 times, which determines the relevance of the selected study. Under the conditions of the partial mobilization, the agricultural sector faced even more difficulties with the personnel shortage, when every employee on the farm counts. The article considers the issue of staffing agriculture in the Komi Republic for 1980-2021. An assessment of the development of agriculture and a comparative analysis of the training of specialists in different periods given: before and after market transformations and now. The level of education of managers and specialists of agricultural organizations of the republic analyzed. The issue of training personnel for agriculture in various professions based on the only specialized institution in the region considered. The proportion of technical school students studying from rural areas calculated. At the regional level, the main problems that constrain the staffing of agriculture identified. Recommendations of an integrated approach to various departmental institutions for the systematic support of personnel of the agro-industrial complex of the Komi Republic proposed.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 9
Problems and priority directions of development of enterprises of production and processing of fruit and berry products
The purpose of the article is to identify priority areas of concentration of efforts on the part of government agencies, as well as managers of fruit sub complex enterprises in solving problems of ensuring the efficiency of production activities and reducing import dependence of finished products and plant protection products, plant nutrition, machinery, technologies. The article reveals the problems of agro-industrial production, intensified as a result of the sanctions imposed, and ways to overcome them. Analysis of the state of fruit and berry production by category of farms for the period 2015-2021 revealed structural problems of the industry. The largest share in the all–Russian volume of production is accounted for by personal subsidiary farms of the population – 64.1%, agricultural enterprises – 31.1%, and peasant (farm) farms - 4.8%. In total, Russia occupies 0.4% of the global production of fruit and berry products. The solution of the problem of strengthening the competitiveness of the fruit sub complex in the conditions of increasing sanctions pressure is possible with the accelerated solution of the following problems: restoration of specialized agricultural organizations, development of consumer cooperation, agro-industrial integration; widespread introduction of innovations in production, restoration of the processing industry; strengthening of state support. This will ensure the growth of production volumes, support domestic demand, as well as the activation of investment and innovation activities. The main directions and practical achievements of foreign and domestic scientific research that have a significant impact on the efficiency of production and its modernization are given. The priority of state support is indicated.
Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 10
Optimization of corn cultivation technology in the Moscow region
Taking into account innovative approaches to the development of agricultural sectors in terms of the equipment used, types and methods of fertilization, crop farms should apply modern developments in their operational activities. Modern agricultural machinery makes it possible to perform technological operations 2-3 times faster than machines of the previous generation, since complex systems perform up to seven consecutive operations in one pass, which will entail cost savings and lower production costs. The article offers a variant of improving the technology of cultivation of corn for grain of the GS-180 variety in the conditions of the Moscow region on an area of 500 hectares with a planned yield of up to 110 kg/ha. It is proposed to combine several operations in one pass with a rational replacement of fertilizers, replace MTZ-82.1 and K744P1 tractors with more productive New Holland T8.390 and New Holland T4 F. Plowing can be performed with simultaneous application of complex fertilizers and disking of the soil with the VaderstadTopDown 900 unit. The Challenger CH9824 seeder has been replaced by John Deere DB37, which simultaneously carries out fertilization (diammophoska), which will reduce the dose by 18-25% from 220 kg/ha to 168 kg/ha. During harvesting, the Acros 595 harvester was replaced with a more productive and economical John Deere X9. The original pesticides were also replaced with cheaper analogues. The savings in production costs per 1 ha of 4.2 thousand rubles were obtained, based on 1 ts of collected products 38.26 rubles/ts, or 14.7%