Яндекс.Метрика

Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 1

New industrialization of the agricultural sector of the Russian economy or a change in the management paradigm in science and business

The article is devoted to one of the most important problems in the agricultural sector of the economy of the Russian Federation in modern geopolitical conditions - accelerated industrialization. The need for a change of management paradigms in both the scientific and technological development of agriculture in the country and the entrepreneurial thinking of agricultural producers is substantiated. The high dependence of the agricultural sector on Western technologies, technical means, seeds of agricultural crops, breeding products, active substances necessary for the production of pesticides was noted. All this requires a critical import substitution of the means of production in the country with the active participation of the state. It is shown that in the conditions of external restrictions, domestic agricultural production faced an increase in prices for materials, seeds, machinery and fuel, which combined with the problem of overcoming sanctions and complicated logistics, as well as with a decrease in effective demand in the country. A set of operational measures developed by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation to provide agricultural producers with mineral fertilizers, technical means, and seed material and plant protection products in a situation of high uncertainty is presented. The paper shows the need for the formation of industry innovation systems, as well as an integrated inter sectoral program with a detailed plan for its implementation. A conceptual model of a "separate" innovation system in the agricultural sector of the country's economy is presented. The role and importance of the RAS in the management of scientific research and development in the interests of the development of the agricultural sector and high-tech industries are shown. The key technological directions in the development of the agro-industrial complex and ways of their implementation in agricultural production in order to accelerate its industrialization are proposed.

Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 4

Legal status and coordination of material interests of the parties to remote digital investment transactions in agriculture

The article overcomes the lack of the existing approach to the organization of production and marketing activities in organic agriculture, associated with the distancing of producers from buyers. For this, a new approach is proposed, based on remote digital investment transactions, the development of which is the purpose of the article. To justify the feasibility of implementing remote digital investment transactions in agriculture, their advantages are determined. The materials of the “Global Food Security Index 2022” for 2022 serve as an information-empirical base for the study. Using the method of correlation analysis, the relationship between the indicators of the implementation of remote-digital investment transactions in agriculture and the indicators of the quality and efficiency of organizing the activities of farms is determined. The sample includes all 23 countries with incomes above the world average, including Russia. Based on the identified advantages, a promising procedure for establishing the legal status and coordinating the material interests of the parties to remote digital investment transactions, including individuals as private investors, has been developed using the example of organic agriculture. As a result, a systematic idea was formed about the economic, legal and technical aspects of coordinating the material interests of the parties to remote-digital investment transactions, including individuals as private investors, in agriculture. The author's approach will more fully reveal the potential for improving the efficiency of farms based on the digital economy in the segment of organic agriculture.

Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 7

Electronic resources as a means of developing universal competencies of personnel for export-import operations

The article deals with the problems of increasing the efficiency of export-import operations through the formation and development of universal competencies of the industry personnel. The most important areas for the development of export-import activities are: attracting foreign investors; development of the technical equipment of the industry; retention of Russia's position in the developed sales markets, and expansion of sales markets; activation of international cooperation. The article presents promising proposals for the development of universal competencies of personnel, which are a significant factor in increasing the efficiency of export-import operations. The competitiveness of the industry is determined by human resources. In the modern world, industry personnel should be able to carry out not only routine functional duties, but also monitor sales markets, search for promising partners, and innovate. The so-called “soft skills”, or universal competencies are necessary for effective professional activity. The development of these competencies begins in the learning process and requires special attention from educational institutions, which should provide future farmers with the opportunity to master the skill of working with information flows through electronic resources. In addition, a significant factor in effective professional activity is the developed skill to apply modern communication technologies, including in a foreign language in the professional and academic sphere.

Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 8

Staffing for agriculture (by the example of the Komi Republic)

To ensure the sustainable and successful development of the agricultural industry, qualified personnel required. Agricultural organizations experienced a serious shortage of highly qualified personnel, which a deterrent to the innovative development of the agricultural sector in the context of digitalization and modern market realities. The current shortage of personnel for the Russian agricultural sector is 88 thousand people. Over the past thirty years, the average annual number of people employed in agriculture in the country has decreased by 2 times, and in the Komi Republic by 10 times, which determines the relevance of the selected study. Under the conditions of the partial mobilization, the agricultural sector faced even more difficulties with the personnel shortage, when every employee on the farm counts. The article considers the issue of staffing agriculture in the Komi Republic for 1980-2021. An assessment of the development of agriculture and a comparative analysis of the training of specialists in different periods given: before and after market transformations and now. The level of education of managers and specialists of agricultural organizations of the republic analyzed. The issue of training personnel for agriculture in various professions based on the only specialized institution in the region considered. The proportion of technical school students studying from rural areas calculated. At the regional level, the main problems that constrain the staffing of agriculture identified. Recommendations of an integrated approach to various departmental institutions for the systematic support of personnel of the agro-industrial complex of the Komi Republic proposed.

Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 9

Problems and priority directions of development of enterprises of production and processing of fruit and berry products

The purpose of the article is to identify priority areas of concentration of efforts on the part of government agencies, as well as managers of fruit sub complex enterprises in solving problems of ensuring the efficiency of production activities and reducing import dependence of finished products and plant protection products, plant nutrition, machinery, technologies. The article reveals the problems of agro-industrial production, intensified as a result of the sanctions imposed, and ways to overcome them. Analysis of the state of fruit and berry production by category of farms for the period 2015-2021 revealed structural problems of the industry. The largest share in the all–Russian volume of production is accounted for by personal subsidiary farms of the population – 64.1%, agricultural enterprises – 31.1%, and peasant (farm) farms - 4.8%. In total, Russia occupies 0.4% of the global production of fruit and berry products. The solution of the problem of strengthening the competitiveness of the fruit sub complex in the conditions of increasing sanctions pressure is possible with the accelerated solution of the following problems: restoration of specialized agricultural organizations, development of consumer cooperation, agro-industrial integration; widespread introduction of innovations in production, restoration of the processing industry; strengthening of state support. This will ensure the growth of production volumes, support domestic demand, as well as the activation of investment and innovation activities. The main directions and practical achievements of foreign and domestic scientific research that have a significant impact on the efficiency of production and its modernization are given. The priority of state support is indicated.

Issue № 4, April 2023, article № 10

Optimization of corn cultivation technology in the Moscow region

Taking into account innovative approaches to the development of agricultural sectors in terms of the equipment used, types and methods of fertilization, crop farms should apply modern developments in their operational activities. Modern agricultural machinery makes it possible to perform technological operations 2-3 times faster than machines of the previous generation, since complex systems perform up to seven consecutive operations in one pass, which will entail cost savings and lower production costs. The article offers a variant of improving the technology of cultivation of corn for grain of the GS-180 variety in the conditions of the Moscow region on an area of 500 hectares with a planned yield of up to 110 kg/ha. It is proposed to combine several operations in one pass with a rational replacement of fertilizers, replace MTZ-82.1 and K744P1 tractors with more productive New Holland T8.390 and New Holland T4 F. Plowing can be performed with simultaneous application of complex fertilizers and disking of the soil with the VaderstadTopDown 900 unit. The Challenger CH9824 seeder has been replaced by John Deere DB37, which simultaneously carries out fertilization (diammophoska), which will reduce the dose by 18-25% from 220 kg/ha to 168 kg/ha. During harvesting, the Acros 595 harvester was replaced with a more productive and economical John Deere X9. The original pesticides were also replaced with cheaper analogues. The savings in production costs per 1 ha of 4.2 thousand rubles were obtained, based on 1 ts of collected products 38.26 rubles/ts, or 14.7%