Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 1
Strategic Goals and Performance Indicators of the Export State Regulation in the Agricultural Sector of the Country And Regions
The article considers the strategic goals of the agrarian policy of Russia in the framework of the implementation of the main state policy documents. An assessment of the regional concentration and differentiation of agro-food exports in general and for individual product groups was carried out based on the calculation of concentration coefficients and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index. A positive trend in the growth of diversification of agro-food exports by regions was revealed, which indicates an increase in the effectiveness of state regulation of the export potential of the agricultural sector of the country and regions. Measures are proposed to improve the system for developing and coordinating strategic goals and indicators of state regulation of the agro-industrial complex.
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 2
The authors' research is devoted to determining the role of the state in interaction with private business structures, the development of public-private partnership in the technology transfer system for modern agriculture, as a strategically important branch of the national economy that ensures food security and social stability in Russian society. The mechanism of technology transfer from the perspective of developers of new technologies and consumers of these technologies in the face of private business structures is considered. At the same time, the role of state structures in the regulation of the transfer mechanism was noted. The existing models of interaction in the system of agricultural technology transfer are analyzed; the most promising ones are identified. The study emphasizes that in order to ensure the effective functioning of all forms of agricultural management in the technology transfer system; the state should contribute to improving the efficiency of interaction of economic entities with scientific institutions in the transfer of new Russian technologies. It is concluded that the role of the state in the national technology transfer system will steadily increase. This will be facilitated by the need for accelerated development of agriculture, on a fundamentally new technical and technological basis. And the state, represented by state authorities, should coordinate and regulate the ongoing transformation processes, providing private business structures with appropriate regulatory and legal documentation, development programs for individual industries and sectors of the national economy.
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 3
The article assesses the efficiency of land use in the collective farm (SEC) named after S.M. Kirov Bogorodsky district of Nizhny Novgorod region, provides an economic justification of the main ways to increase it. In particular, the composition and structure of agricultural land, the intensity of their use are considered. In dynamics for 3 years, the efficiency of the use of land resources by natural and cost indicators has been analyzed. On this basis, ways to increase the efficiency of land use have been developed and economically justified - increasing the level of mechanization of production processes and the qualification of working personnel, the use of organic and mineral fertilizers. The implementation of the proposed measures is an effective management action, as it will increase the efficiency of the use of land resources.
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 4
The sustainable development of the agricultural organization depends on many factors and conditions for the effectiveness of all agricultural activities and, most importantly, on the lean production of products (works, services). These factors and conditions can be divided into the following groups: abiotic factors; intensification factors; organizational and managerial conditions. Based on the study of methodological aspects, the author's definition of the concept of "sustainable development of agricultural organizations" is given. A model of the concept and methodology for an integrated assessment of the sustainable development of an agricultural organization has been developed. To assess the sustainability of the development of the agricultural organization, it is proposed to use a system of non-financial and financial indicators, as well as their average values over the past 3-5 years. The proposed sustainability assessment toolkit will help reduce the risks of managing the environmental, social and economic impact of the agricultural organization.
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 5
The article gives a detailed assessment of the level of economic development of all federal districts of Russia, notes the contribution of each to the country's food fund. The authors consider the role of agriculture in the Russian economy in the long-term dynamics, note interregional differences in the level of development of the industry and their cause. The article convincingly shows the importance of territorial division of labour and interregional specialization in solving the food problem. The multidimensional rating assessment of economic development varies by federal districts from 59 to 123%, which indicates extremely uneven development. Based on the rating assessment, the federal districts are identified as leaders and outsiders in terms of the level of development of the agricultural industry, the leading agricultural holdings in each region producing the main types of food are listed. The article highlights the most problematic federal districts with low incomes and nutrition levels that do not meet medical standards, which is explained by the low effective demand of the population. In all regions, without exception, milk consumption is 16-36% below the norm, although the self-sufficiency of the Russian Federation as a whole with this group of products exceeded the threshold indicator of the Food Security Doctrine. In this regard, urgent measures are needed to increase the incomes of the population.
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 6
Features of the Agro-Industrial Complex Development Of the Belgorod Region in Terms of Import Substitution
The work provides an analysis of the development of the agro-industrial complex of the Belgorod region within the framework of the implementation of the import substitution policy in order to strengthen export positions. Based on statistical data and methods of analysis, the authors give a comparative description of the regions of the Central Federal District on the index of production of agro-industrial products, and also reflect the dependence of agricultural production on the investment component. The results of the study are based on data provided from the website of the Belgorod Statistics Service, passport and reports on the implementation of the state program "Development of Agriculture and Fisheries in the Belgorod Region." The nature of the development of agricultural production in the Belgorod region is influenced by macrofactors (climatic conditions; the effects of the pandemic; digitalization of production) and microfactors (low level of technical updating of equipment; the condition of agricultural land; low level of investment in the industry). The authors identified priority areas for the development of the import substitution strategy.
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 7
The Role of Digitalization in the Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex and Rural Areas of the Region
Digitalization will play an important role in the sustainable development of agricultural business and rural areas. Digital transformation with varying degrees of intensity covers all spheres of the agrarian economy along the product chain. However, the level of implementation of digital technologies in the rural economy is still significantly lagging behind the urban one. The process of digital transformation in the region for most enterprises of medium and small forms of farming in the agricultural sector has practically stopped in the conditions of sanctions and limited access to finance the digitalization infrastructure. In the agrarian economy, the gap between large agricultural holdings, agricultural organizations and small forms of management in terms of the use of information technologies is rapidly increasing. The article presents in dynamics the results of the provision of digitalization infrastructure economic entities of the Leningrad region. Four successive stages of the process of digital transformation in the agricultural sector have been identified, a number of problems and barriers to the digital transformation of agricultural and rural organizations have been identified
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 8
About the Innovativeness of Russian Education and Why it is Difficult for Regional Agricultural Universities to Meet it
This article discusses the ways of transition to innovative education in Russian universities, provides examples of why these reforms are stalled in higher education. The features of innovative education in the world are characterized, the specifics of this education in Russia are given, and the role of regional universities and the state in the development of the region is shown. The combination of scientific research and training in one educational institution significantly increases the level and effectiveness of the educational process, expands personnel opportunities for conducting research. For the development of the region, agricultural workers must be leaders in the field of new knowledge, especially in the field of engineering, a center of competence and make a significant contribution to the real sector of the region.
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 9
Effective Contract As The Basis For Achieving Indicators Of The University's Performance In The Context Of Economic Sanctions Of Unfriendly Countries
A properly implemented effective contract is an individual assessment tool that allows you to determine the effective work of scientific and pedagogical workers of educational organizations, which contributes to the implementation of indicators of the effectiveness of the university's activities and indicators that ensure the establishment of admission benchmarks for training in higher education programs at the expense of budget allocations of the federal budget. In the struggle for ratings and results of control figures for admission, educational organizations often do not always associate them with the indicators of an effective contract. The article proposes a structural scheme for the introduction of an effective contract, ensuring the effectiveness and effectiveness of the activities of the educational organization and a scheme for the distribution of incentive payments within the framework of an employment contract and an effective contract for teachers, taking into account all types of payments and working hours. The algorithm for calculating the remuneration of scientific and pedagogical workers is given, taking into account payments for performance indicators and laminarity of labour duties. A description of the model has been made that allows educational organizations to predict the performance indicators of the university and calculate incentive payments under an effective contract.
Issue № 11, November 2022, article № 10
Features of Cattle Breeding and Feed Production in Territories Contaminated with Radionuclides after the Chernobyl Accident
In the distant period after the Chernobyl accident (April 26, 1986) in the zone of radioactive contamination, the task of obtaining safe livestock products (milk, cattle meat) satisfying the permissible level of radionuclides is put forward to the fore. At the same time, it is fundamental to solve the problem of creating a rational sustainable feed base that meets the objective economic requirements of production along the chain of "clean" feed – "clean" livestock products, which helps to reduce the dose load on the human body. In the near future, one of the real and cost-effective ways to solve problems in feed production, improve soil fertility and reduce radioactive contamination, along with the use of all traditional resources, is to increase the rate of liming, phosphorization, potassium, the use of optimal doses of mineral and organic fertilizers, the use of cultural measures. This will reduce the accumulation of radionuclides in feed, obtain "pure" cattle breeding products and bring the state of soil acidity, humus, phosphorus, and potassium content to an optimal level. To determine the whole range of measures to overcome and eliminate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, new theoretical approaches are considered in the article based on the analysis of feed production data and the production of cattle products (milk, cattle meat). Specialized farming systems provide, on the one hand, expanded reproduction of soil fertility, increasing crop yields and productivity of natural hayfields and pastures, obtaining agricultural products that meet sanitary and hygienic standards, on the other hand, guaranteeing the environmentally safe functioning of agricultural production.