Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 1

Problems of Innovation and Investment Support of Agriculture

The main problems of investing in the innovative development of the agro-food complex of Russia are considered. Among other things, the instability of the dynamics of investments in fixed assets, a decrease in the share of investments in agriculture in total investments in the country's economy to 3.2%, the food industry to 1.3%, significant differentiation of the regions of the Russian Federation in terms of investment provision, the use of most of the investments to replace worn-out fixed assets. Despite the increase in the cost of innovative activities in agriculture to 49.0 billion rubles. In 2022, the level of innovative activity of agricultural producers was lower than the national average and amounted to 8.7%. The share of innovative products in the total volume of agricultural production is growing weakly. The main factors influencing the development of innovative and investment activities in agriculture and the food industry of the Siberian Federal District are highlighted: increasing the profitability of agro-industrial production, attracting additional investments in the agro-food complex, including from friendly BRICS countries, the EAEU and others. The necessity of modernization of the material and technical base in accordance with the model of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex is shown. The main directions of investment in the innovative development of agriculture in the region are proposed, including increasing investments in human capital, the development of resource-saving and digital agrotechnologies, and environmental protection in the agricultural sector.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 2

Vertical integration in breeding and seed production as a driver for the development of domestic crop production

The work is devoted to the issues of neoindustrialization of domestic crop production based on the creation of high-tech products in breeding and seed production. The high dependence of the industry on foreign-selected seeds was noted, which increased 2.7 times only from 2016 to 2022. The need for a system of expanded reproduction of the achievements of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2030, in which the production of high–tech products should be brought into full compliance with the law of vertical integration, is substantiated. The reasons for the slow recovery of Russian breeding are revealed, primarily due to insufficient financing of both the program itself and agricultural science in general, in comparison with foreign multinational breeding companies. In addition, this is due to imperfect legislation in the field of seed breeding, a mechanism for financing complex scientific and technical projects, and incomplete localization of seed production by foreign companies in the country. It is proved that the lack of seeds leads to untimely variety change and variety renewal in the real sector of the economy. It is shown that the selection process of agricultural crops is a complex system that, in modern conditions of scientific and technological progress, should take place on the basis of vertical integration, which is part of the organizational mechanism of neo-industrialization, effective use of the material and technical base, living and materialized labor and return on capital investments. As a result of the large-scale industrialization of the research and development sector of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, 50 agricultural research centers and 30 interdisciplinary land-secured experimental farms for primary seed production of basic crops have been created in 55 regions of the country. The material base of scientific organizations has been strengthened (114 new laboratories have been created, 86 of which are engaged in research in the field of crop production and biotechnology), human resources have been strengthened (1,100 new researchers have been attracted; the average age in scientific organizations was 47 years). Additional measures have been developed and proposed to accelerate the implementation of breeding achievements in the real sector of the country's economy, which will reduce the dependence of domestic agricultural business on foreign technologies, this is especially important in difficult conditions of sanctions pressure.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 5

Formation of human capital of agro-industrial complex in the industrial region (Kemerovo region – Kuzbass case study)

Nowadays ensuring the country's food security is one of the most important issues facing the state. Modern realities form the features of the agro-industrial complex transformation, primarily related to the digitalization of socio-economic processes, defining new requirements for the human capital of the sectors of the agro-industrial complex. The issues of formation and development of human capital are especially acute in agriculture, because significant part of agriculture works can be carried out in rural areas. The article provides an analysis of approaches to the development of human capital in the context of the agriculture digital transformation, especially at the regional level, since regions have different industry orientations, as well as differences in socio-economic and natural-geographical conditions. The authors focus on the issue of the need for human capital in agriculture and rural areas in industrial regions, which is associated with a high degree of urbanization, aging of rural personnel, as well as the low popularity of agricultural education. The authors have identified the features of the formation of human capital in industrial regions based on the materials of the Kemerovo region – Kuzbass. As a result of the study, demographic features were identified that reflect the problem of the staffing of the agro-industrial complex: a low proportion of the rural population and a reduced reproduction of the rural population. The decline in the population under the age of working age is increasing. There was an increase in demand for specialists with higher education in the type of economic activity "agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing and fish farming" with developed digital competencies. The article suggests measures aimed at the formation of the agriculture human capital in the industrial region. They should include two broadened areas: measures to reduce disparities in the development of rural and urban settlements and measures focused on the development of the human potential.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 6

Problems and prospects for the development of horticulture in households of the population

The article considers the problems of horticulture development in the households of the population and substantiates the directions of its development in the future. In Russia, the problem of food security in the field of fruit consumption is acute. An important role in solving this problem is assigned to households of the population. They produce 2,555.2 thousand tons, or 59.8% of the gross harvest of fruits and berries, including berries - 671.3 thousand tons, or 97.3%, stone fruits – 575.8 thousand tons, or 88.5%. Over the years of the implementation of the State Program for the Development of agriculture in these farms, the production of fruit and berry products increased by 495.5 thousand tons, or by 24.1% as a result of an increase in the yield of perennial plantations from 76.3 to 101.3 c from 1 ha, or by 10.4% while reducing their total area by 32.1 thousand hectares, or by 32.8%. Households have reserves for increasing the production of fruit and berry products by increasing the area of berry gardens, especially the area of stone fruit and berry crops, and increasing their productivity. The further development of horticulture in these farms will be facilitated by the creation of consumer cooperatives for the storage, processing and marketing of fruits and berries, which will be engaged in their procurement, processing and sale, and the allocation of subsidies to citizens who maintain personal subsidiary plots and pay tax on professional income (self-employed) for reimbursement part of the cost of increasing the production of fruits and berries.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 8

Increasing the economic efficiency of the production of organic crop production in the regulatory system

The study examines the elements of the process of increasing the economic efficiency of organic crop production through administrative and managerial measures involving certification of soil and products, compliance with organic standards, innovation in the main and auxiliary process, diversification, cooperation, etc.; technological measures implemented in a closed production cycle with a comprehensive analysis of soil and micronutrient deficiency, development of crop rotations; technical and economic measures aimed at targeted production, increasing the level of labor productivity, resource, information and analytical, scientific support for organic production. A well-formed system of regulatory regulation of the Russian market of organic crop products has been established, regulated by regulatory documents, standards of direct and indirect action, regional regulatory legal acts and regulatory documents mediating the development of domestic organic crop production have been identified.Large Russian companies producing organic crop production have been identified (the Russian AgroTerra Group of Companies, the Andryushkino Agro-Industrial Holding, Siberian Organic Products LLC). The production and economic indicators of the functioning of Agrotex LLC, a producer of organic crop production operating in the Saratov region, with the establishment of an increase in acreage, revenue from sales, net profit and marketability of organic crop production.Recommendations for improving the efficiency of organic crop production are highlighted: structuring and streamlining of the production process aimed at increasing the volume and quality of products.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 9

Challenges of modernity and trends in grain production

The current state of grain production is attracting more and more attention from scientists, public and political figures in connection with ongoing global trends and the introduction of sanctions against the Russian Federation, which may affect the state of food security in the world. These circumstances predetermined the relevance of the problem under study and its goal is to substantiate the current trends in grain production and identify barriers to the further development of the grain industry. The materials of the article are based on official statistical data presented by the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation, the results of surveys and interviews with experts in this field, as well as published scientific research by scientists interested in the functioning of the grain industry and the grain market. The main scientific methods used in the study: analysis of statistical data, literature review, expert interviews, correlation and regression analysis, comparative analysis. The work proves that the grain industry in the Russian Federation has been in the development stage since 1998, which is confirmed by the steady trend of growth in grain production and the yield of grain and leguminous crops. It is substantiated that for further development of the industry and increasing the share of domestic grain in the world market, it is necessary to improve the quality of grain, which depends not only on internal factors of production in organizations, but also on the development of logistics infrastructure and the introduction of innovations. The practical implementation of the directions proposed in the article for improving insurance, developing production and logistics infrastructure, introducing innovations and improving the skills of workers with their involvement in rural areas will increase the efficiency of the functioning of grain producers and improve the quality of products.