Яндекс.Метрика

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 2

On the influence of natural and climatic factors on agriculture of the Siberian Federal District

The article is devoted to the study of the main trends in natural and climatic changes occurring in the territory of the Siberian Federal District and the assessment of their impact on the agricultural production of the macro-region. The materials and methods of the study were climatic indicators: average annual air temperature; annual sum of atmospheric precipitation; dates of air temperature transition through 0, +5, +10°С towards temperature increase and decrease; period with air temperature above 0, +5, +10°С; Selyaninov hydrothermal coefficient. The study found that global warming in the northern regions is at a faster pace than in the southern regions. In addition, there is an increase in the duration of the growing season and the frost-free period (1-3 days every 10 years). The analysis of the hydrothermal coefficient showed an increase in climate aridity in the republics of Tuva and Altai and in the Irkutsk region. Correlation analysis of grain and leguminous crop yield (key agricultural crop of Siberia) dependence on average annual temperature change was carried out. As a result, it was found that the increase in average annual temperature has a different effect on the yield of grain and leguminous crops. If in the northern regions of Siberia warming leads to an increase in the yield indicator, then in the southern regions - to a decrease, i.e. in the north of the Siberian Federal District, global warming will be accompanied by an increase in the growing season, the duration of the frost-free period, etc. It will be possible to grow new varieties of crops, including late ripening. In the southern regions, an increase in climate aridity will lead to an increase in the number of droughts and, accordingly, a decrease in crop yields. In these regions, the use of drought-resistant crop varieties, the introduction of pre-sowing seed processing technologies and the application of mineral fertilizers are necessary.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 4

Program-targeted approach to managing the sustainable development of agribusiness in the context of digital transformation

The article investigated the problem of the disconnection of the practice of managing the digital transformation of agribusiness from the interests of its sustainable development, which imply ensuring food security. The short comings of the planned approach associated with its definition of digitalization as an end in itself, as well as with digitalization planning based on the capabilities of agribusiness, are substantiated. Based on international statistics for 53 countries for 2022, an econometric model has been compiled using the regression analysis method, which mathematically describes the pattern of changes in the components of food security under the influence of a set of factors for the digital transformation of agribusiness. The model is useful for the program-targeted approach, as it allows determining with high accuracy the control values of digitalization indicators, which has been tested on the example of Russia. A conceptual vision of a program-targeted approach to managing digital transformation in the interests of the sustainable development of agribusiness is proposed, which reveals the program, the system of goals and the tools to achieve them. The features of the developed software-targeted approach are, firstly, its focus on unlocking the potential of digitalization in the field of supporting the sustainable development of agribusiness; secondly, establishing control values ​ ​ of digitalization indicators based on the econometric model; thirdly, the new logic of sampling the scope of digital transformation of agribusiness, based on the needs: the development of digital competencies, automation of decision-making, digitalization of marketing and sales. The theoretical significance of the developed approach is to improve the methodological apparatus for managing the digital transformation of agribusiness, ensuring its conceptual unity with sustainable development in the aspect of food security. The developed approach can be used in Russia to improve the efficiency of managing the digital transformation of agribusiness and strengthening its sustainability.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 6

Organic production in the regions: economic, social and budgetary effect

Russia has concentrated on its territory everything necessary for the development of agriculture and the production of organic products: long-term agricultural traditions, large areas of agricultural land, as well as a low level of intensification and chemicalization of the agro-industrial complex in comparison with developed countries. Thus, the average use of mineral fertilizers in the European Union is 212 kg / ha, while in Russia – 47, and in the Altai Territory -23 kg / ha (according to 2022). In modern economic conditions, the effective management of agricultural production depends on the degree of its equilibrium and the organizational and economic methods used. Public consciousness has reached a level of development at which the criterion of agricultural production is not only an increase in the volume of products produced, but also the conservation of natural resources, due to constantly increasing pressures on environmental factors – soil cover, biological organisms, atmosphere and water resources, which leads to a violation of the fragile natural balance. Unjustified excess of the norms of synthetic mineral fertilizers, excessive use of chemical plant protection products, non–compliance with a scientifically based crop rotation system, the use of intensive agricultural technologies have led to serious environmental consequences - a decrease in soil fertility, depletion of the humus horizon, a reduction in the population of animals and birds in areas of intensive agricultural production, the release of chemicals into the atmosphere and water resources. Theoretical and methodological issues related to the formation of the mechanism of transition of agricultural organizations to the use of methods of ecological production remain unresolved.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 7

The organic agriculture market conditions: growth opportunities for the Russia

The purpose of the study is to explore the dynamics of the development of the global and domestic organic agriculture market and clarify growth opportunities for the Russian Federation. The methodological basis of the study is an integrated approach, within which data series on the main indicators of the development of organic production, their dynamics and correlation in the Russian Federation and the world are considered. The area of world certified organic lands has been continuously growing since 2000 (509.3% growth), in the Russian Federation for 10 years the dynamics is positive (348.2% growth), for 2019-2021 it is negative (2.8% reduction). In 2021, the area of land under the production of organic products in the world is 76.4 million hectares, in the Russian Federation - 655.5 thousand hectares. In 2021, there were 3.7 million producers, 118.7 thousand processors, 8.6 thousand importers and 9.3 thousand exporters of organic products in the world. There are 66 producers and 19 processors of organic products in the Russian Federation. The volume of the global market for organic products in 2021 amounted to 125 billion euros. On average, annual consumption of organic products in the world is 15.7 euros per capita. In the Russian Federation, the market is estimated at 183 million euros, consumption is 1 euro per person. The market for organic products in the Russian Federation grew in 2019-2021 somewhat faster than the global and European markets. The share of Russia in the world market of organics is 0.15%; the share of organics in the food market in Russia is 0.13%. In 2021, world exports of organic products amounted to 4,689.1 thousand tons; from the Russian Federation to the countries of the European Union - 15.9 thousand tons, to the USA - 45.9 thousand tons. 63% of the organic products market in Russia is imported. The main trends in the development of organic production have been identified: a slowdown in the global annual growth rate of the organic products market (from 13.4% in 2020 to 3.5% in 2021); acceleration of the domestic market: in 2020 by 1.9% (3.0 million euros), in 2021 by 18.1% (28 million euros). The possibilities for the growth of organic agriculture production in modern Russia are shown: the accelerated development of organic production in Russia in the field of crop production and dairy cattle breeding until 2035; opportunities for expanding the export of organic products from the Russian Federation in terms of products of deep processing with high added value.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 8

Diffusion of milking robots in Russia

The reduction in the number of people employed in agriculture, the high share of heavy manual labor, increasing requirements for the maintenance of cows and the quality of dairy products, an increasing number of rural farms are beginning to introduce automation and robotization into their production. This is especially important now in the context of sanctions imposed against Russia and the policy of import substitution. Particular attention is paid to the spread of milking robots; in particular, an analysis of the use of Lely and De Laval robots in regions and individual agricultural enterprises of the country was carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of robotic milking are reflected, as well as factors influencing the implementation of this technology. It is shown that for farms in the Kaluga and Vologda regions, the Republic of Tatarstan, which are leaders in the number of installed milking robots in Russia, there has been an increase in the average annual milk yield per cow since their introduction. In addition to milking robots, other types of robots are used in agriculture, for example, barn cleaning robots, feed pushers, and robotic feeding systems. However, at present, further robotization of the dairy industry is experiencing difficulties due to the fact that most milking robots are produced abroad, and after February 2022, some of their leading manufacturers (for example, Lely) left the Russian market. However, Russian developments are emerging, which will reduce dependence on foreign technologies.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 9

Dynamics and structure of oilseed production in the Russia

Over the past 30 years, significant structural changes have taken place in the country's crop production. The average volume of gross harvest of oilseeds in the regions of the Russian Federation increased by 8 times during the analyzed period, the median value of the volume of gross harvest of oilseeds increased by 196 times. The maximum volume of the gross harvest of oilseeds increased by 3 times, and if in 1996 the leader was the Krasnodar Territory, then in 2021 it is the Rostov Region. The production of oilseeds is mainly carried out in agricultural organizations, although the share of peasant farms (individual enterprises) has increased over the analyzed period and currently stands at more than 30%. The volume of gross harvest of oilseeds in peasant farms (IE) has increased over 30 years by more than 23 times, in agricultural organizations by more than 6 times, and in farms of the population has practically not changed. A comparative analysis of the regions in terms of yield, sown area and gross harvest of oilseeds shows that four regions that are leaders in terms of sown area (Rostov Region, Saratov Region, Altai Territory, and Volgograd Region) and one region in terms of yield (Krasnodar Territory) are among the seven leading regions in terms of gross harvest. The increase in the volume of gross harvest of oilseeds is currently mainly due to an increase in the sown area. During the period under review, there were structural changes in the volume of oilseed production by type. Thus, in 1996, 85.5% of the total production was occupied by sunflower seeds, 8.8% of soybeans, 1.2% of mustard seeds, and 4.17% of rapeseeds. In 2021, sunflower seeds already occupy 63.0% of the total production of oilseeds, soybeans - 19.15%, mustard seeds - 0.58%, rapeseed - 11.24%.

Issue № 1, January 2024, article № 10

The current state and prospects of grain production development under the conditions of sanctions pressure

Grain production plays an important role in ensuring the socio-economic efficiency of the agro-industrial complex. The purpose of this work was to study the current state, identify problems and substantiate the prospects for the effective functioning of grain production. The study was conducted for the period 2013-2021 and is based on a quantitative analysis of the comparison of grain production parameters in various categories of farms. The authors have identified modern trends in the development of grain production, characterized by the expansion of the acreage of grain crops, the increase in yields and gross fees, changes in the structure of production, as well as a gradual reduction in the role of agricultural organizations. The positive dynamics of the development of the industry allowed to increase the level of self-sufficiency in products to 150%, the share of exports in the volume of manufactured products increased to 35.3%, and the consumption of bread products per capita, despite the reduction, remains 20% higher than the established rational norms. The article localizes the list of the most promising markets in terms of location, availability and tariff policy for Russian goods. The strengths and weaknesses of grain production are identified, the possibilities of their minimization are substantiated, associated with the expansion of sales markets, maintaining the volume of state support and promoting the export of products, strengthening the financial condition of agribusiness entities, improving the logistics system, increasing the material and technical security of farms. The current directions of the industry development are determined on the basis of the introduction of promising technological solutions, solving the problems of technical equipment, provision with seeds and agrochemicals, improving the culture of agriculture, as well as the development of the commodity distribution system and the diversification of sales markets.