Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 12

Selecting export policy priorities

The paper analyzes the volumes and proportions of exports of unprocessed grain, products of processing of grain and meat products obtained by fattening livestock in Russia and other countries. Also proposals for choosing a policy for the use of produced grain, contributing to the development of agriculture, processing industry and export growth are addressed. Russia exports almost half of its wheat, a quarter of barley and a third of corn. The agrarian policy of the country was aimed at increasing exports, primarily of unprocessed grain. Russia has come out on top in the world in wheat exports and ranks high in other grain crops. At the same time, in terms of the share of domestic grain consumption for industrial processing and livestock feed, Russia lags behind most grain-producing countries. Should the current policy be maintained or should it be changed? Should agrarian policy stimulate the export of unprocessed grain or restrain it and stimulate the production and export of grain processing products, the consumption of grain in animal husbandry and the export of livestock products? Publications have appeared claiming that it is difficult or impossible to sell processed products, that large grain producers from other countries also sell grain, and not processed products. Is it so? From 2021 The Government of the Russian Federation introduced floating export duties. The overwhelming majority of the expert community proposes to abolish duties. They reduce the income of agricultural producers, increase the risk of a slowdown in growth or even a recession in grain production. The data presented in the paper confirm this conclusion. But if the duties are canceled, then the growth of exports of unprocessed grain will continue, Russia will achieve new export records, but the grain processing industry and animal husbandry will not develop. Whether to maintain duties or eliminate them is another issue addressed in this article.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 13

Creation of a vertically integrated system of breeding and seed production in agriculture as an innovation-oriented direction of its new industrialization

The main factors and criteria for the formation of a vertically integrated system of breeding and seed production of agricultural crops as the main innovation-oriented direction of the new industrialization of the agricultural sector of the country's economy are investigated. The high dependence of domestic agriculture on foreign producers of agricultural seeds is shown. It is noted that increasing the scientific and technological potential of Russian breeding and seed production will gradually reduce the dependence of agricultural producers of the country on imports of foreign technologies. The significance of the Agreement on cooperation in the field of scientific and technical support for the development of agriculture signed between the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia and the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" for the accelerated implementation of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2030 is considered. (hereinafter – FNTP). The importance of vertical integration in the system of breeding and seed production is shown, which should include the whole complex of technological measures, starting from the production of basic material and ending with the technological map of the production of a separate crop. The paper presents the modern components of the vertically integrated process in the selection of agricultural plants. A model of a vertically integrated system in the selection and seed production of agricultural crops is presented. The system of seed production of double interlinear corn hybrids by the type of "recovery" is illustrated by the example of Ross 209MV, the implementation of the law of vertical integration of which greatly simplifies and reduces the cost of seed production. New rules for localization of agricultural seed production by foreign companies in Russia are considered, which will significantly reduce the risk of loss of competence in the field of breeding and seed production of major crops. The main factors and reasons for the creation of vertically integrated breeding formations, which are an innovation-oriented direction in carrying out new industrialization in the agricultural sector of the country's economy, are substantiated.

Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 16

The main global trends in the development of the market of vegetable products

The purpose of the work is to formulate the main vectors of the development of the world market of vegetable growing, taking into account the main trends, including in relation to consumer preferences. Thus, the world production of vegetables has increased 2.8 times over the past 20 years and in 2020 amounted to 1,250 million tons. A number of factors contributed to such a serious growth, in particular the development of the Asian region, where production growth amounted to about 370% over this period of time. The world vegetable trade, unlike the fruit trade, is based on several types of products, such as garlic and onions, which are transported over long distances, as well as the trade in fresh vegetables, such as tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, salads, etc., which is carried out between different climatic zones and is a significant aspect of the saturation of the assortment. Growing fresh vegetables in the open ground is limited in time, which is one of the reasons for the low level of self-sufficiency in both developed and developing countries, so in Central and northern Europe, the self-sufficiency index is equal to 34% in 2020. The main vegetable exporting countries are Spain and the Netherlands with 36% and 35% for fresh vegetables and Italy are mainly tomatoes in processed form. The vegetable market is a very heterogeneous market. Basically, there are big differences between the production of fresh vegetables and the production of raw materials for further production, as well as between cultivation in open and closed ground. It should also be noted that there is an increased global trend towards the consumption of vegetable products, which entails an increase in the growth rate of average per capita consumption of vegetables. The article describes the main global trends in the development of the vegetable market. The main factors influencing the growth and development of this market are considered. The main trends of vegetable consumption regarding the development of the vector "healthy nutrition" are formulated. The main trends in the development of the global vegetable market are presented.

Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 4

Development of the competitive potential of organic land use

Based on the study of the theoretical and methodological foundations of production, marketing, and increasing the competitiveness of organic crop products, the study formulated the principles for the effective development of the industry (the principle of balance between ecology and production, scientific validity of the choice of technological process, resource saving and cost minimization, target orientation of production to the consumer, intersectoral interaction, profit maximization while minimizing environmental damage, optimizing the ratio of income and expenses, efficient use of production factors, optimal management decision-making, social responsibility).The necessity of using innovative components in the formation of market conditions for organic products, which ensures the expansion of the range, is revealed. The concept of developing the competitive potential of agricultural producers of organic crop production through the combined use of natural, material, financial, labor resources, ensuring the involvement of unused reserves while maintaining a resource-saving effect, is outlined. The monitoring of indicators of the structure of organic crop production in the Russian Federation, according to regional data, revealed the most (pea) and least (milk thistle) crops that are popular for organic cultivation. The conclusion is formulated, confirming the options for resource-raw material, resource and resource-intellectual way of conducting organic land use with the definition of the latter as the most effective one that ensures the introduction of agro-innovations and the development of the competitive potential of the industry.