Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 11
The article presents an analysis of the export of dairy products and the prospects for its development. The FAO forecast highlights growth in casein, skimmed milk powder, cheese and butter. It is determined that the share of Russian dairy exports is still insignificant, but the trade turnover tends to grow. The composition of the largest importers of domestic products is mainly limited to neighboring countries. Product exports have a high country concentration. It was revealed that the domestic raw material base and exports are not territorially interconnected. The negative trade balance will continue for the next decade. The main consumption will be provided by low- and middle-income countries, which should be taken into account when expanding sales markets in the future. Export growth for Russia will be determined by the state of the raw material base, the financial stability of dairy farming and the processing industry, as well as the dynamics of domestic demand for products. Guaranteed state support is required for dairy producers along the entire technological chain, which should be focused on long-term partnerships.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 12
The paper analyzes the volumes and proportions of exports of unprocessed grain, products of processing of grain and meat products obtained by fattening livestock in Russia and other countries. Also proposals for choosing a policy for the use of produced grain, contributing to the development of agriculture, processing industry and export growth are addressed. Russia exports almost half of its wheat, a quarter of barley and a third of corn. The agrarian policy of the country was aimed at increasing exports, primarily of unprocessed grain. Russia has come out on top in the world in wheat exports and ranks high in other grain crops. At the same time, in terms of the share of domestic grain consumption for industrial processing and livestock feed, Russia lags behind most grain-producing countries. Should the current policy be maintained or should it be changed? Should agrarian policy stimulate the export of unprocessed grain or restrain it and stimulate the production and export of grain processing products, the consumption of grain in animal husbandry and the export of livestock products? Publications have appeared claiming that it is difficult or impossible to sell processed products, that large grain producers from other countries also sell grain, and not processed products. Is it so? From 2021 The Government of the Russian Federation introduced floating export duties. The overwhelming majority of the expert community proposes to abolish duties. They reduce the income of agricultural producers, increase the risk of a slowdown in growth or even a recession in grain production. The data presented in the paper confirm this conclusion. But if the duties are canceled, then the growth of exports of unprocessed grain will continue, Russia will achieve new export records, but the grain processing industry and animal husbandry will not develop. Whether to maintain duties or eliminate them is another issue addressed in this article.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 13
Creation of a vertically integrated system of breeding and seed production in agriculture as an innovation-oriented direction of its new industrialization
The main factors and criteria for the formation of a vertically integrated system of breeding and seed production of agricultural crops as the main innovation-oriented direction of the new industrialization of the agricultural sector of the country's economy are investigated. The high dependence of domestic agriculture on foreign producers of agricultural seeds is shown. It is noted that increasing the scientific and technological potential of Russian breeding and seed production will gradually reduce the dependence of agricultural producers of the country on imports of foreign technologies. The significance of the Agreement on cooperation in the field of scientific and technical support for the development of agriculture signed between the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia and the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" for the accelerated implementation of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2030 is considered. (hereinafter – FNTP). The importance of vertical integration in the system of breeding and seed production is shown, which should include the whole complex of technological measures, starting from the production of basic material and ending with the technological map of the production of a separate crop. The paper presents the modern components of the vertically integrated process in the selection of agricultural plants. A model of a vertically integrated system in the selection and seed production of agricultural crops is presented. The system of seed production of double interlinear corn hybrids by the type of "recovery" is illustrated by the example of Ross 209MV, the implementation of the law of vertical integration of which greatly simplifies and reduces the cost of seed production. New rules for localization of agricultural seed production by foreign companies in Russia are considered, which will significantly reduce the risk of loss of competence in the field of breeding and seed production of major crops. The main factors and reasons for the creation of vertically integrated breeding formations, which are an innovation-oriented direction in carrying out new industrialization in the agricultural sector of the country's economy, are substantiated.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 14
The dynamics of consumption of basic foodstuffs, energy and nutritional values of the daily diet of the population of the Russian Federation, the ratio of food consumption with rational norms in urban and rural households are analyzed. An assessment of the evolution of these norms in our country is given. The economic accessibility of food to urban and rural populations is characterized by indicators of per capita household disposable resources, the level of poverty, cash incomes of poor households, the share of food costs in consumption. The influence of food inflation on the economic accessibility of food products is investigated. An integral assessment of the level of economic accessibility of food to urban and rural households has been made, which has shown a positive shift over the past 8 years, which is due not so much to the improvement of the situation in rural areas as to its deterioration in the city. The necessity of organizing domestic food aid in our country in the form of food support for the poor and social nutrition on the basis of domestic production is substantiated.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 15
The article gives a comparative description of the state of urban and rural housing stock in dynamics, presents an analysis of programs and projects related to improving comfort and ensuring the availability of housing in rural areas. Priority directions in the implementation of strategic goals in the development of rural areas have been identified through a phased solution to the problems of housing and communal services, improving the quality of rural housing, which is superior in all respects to urban housing, and organizational and economic mechanisms have been proposed to accelerate the renewal of rural housing stock.
Issue № 7, July 2023, article № 16
The purpose of the work is to formulate the main vectors of the development of the world market of vegetable growing, taking into account the main trends, including in relation to consumer preferences. Thus, the world production of vegetables has increased 2.8 times over the past 20 years and in 2020 amounted to 1,250 million tons. A number of factors contributed to such a serious growth, in particular the development of the Asian region, where production growth amounted to about 370% over this period of time. The world vegetable trade, unlike the fruit trade, is based on several types of products, such as garlic and onions, which are transported over long distances, as well as the trade in fresh vegetables, such as tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, salads, etc., which is carried out between different climatic zones and is a significant aspect of the saturation of the assortment. Growing fresh vegetables in the open ground is limited in time, which is one of the reasons for the low level of self-sufficiency in both developed and developing countries, so in Central and northern Europe, the self-sufficiency index is equal to 34% in 2020. The main vegetable exporting countries are Spain and the Netherlands with 36% and 35% for fresh vegetables and Italy are mainly tomatoes in processed form. The vegetable market is a very heterogeneous market. Basically, there are big differences between the production of fresh vegetables and the production of raw materials for further production, as well as between cultivation in open and closed ground. It should also be noted that there is an increased global trend towards the consumption of vegetable products, which entails an increase in the growth rate of average per capita consumption of vegetables. The article describes the main global trends in the development of the vegetable market. The main factors influencing the growth and development of this market are considered. The main trends of vegetable consumption regarding the development of the vector "healthy nutrition" are formulated. The main trends in the development of the global vegetable market are presented.
Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 1
The article substantiates the possibility of using the capitalization of agricultural organizations of the Russian Federation as an instrument of state investment. It is determined that the fact of increasing investments in agriculture of the Russian Federation hides the fact of their relative (relative to other types of economic activity) reduction, deterioration of the technical condition of fixed assets of agricultural producers. The increase in the share of profitable agricultural organizations is due to a more intensive reduction (closure, bankruptcy) of unprofitable agricultural organizations. The persistence of the prevailing trends, aggravated by low profitability and high creditworthiness, does not allow us to count on the restoration and development of agriculture without state support, including at the expense of state investments – entry into the capital of agricultural organizations, which will significantly increase the investment attractiveness of entrepreneurial activity in agriculture, will ensure the growth of production and sales, increase turnover, increase profits and profitability.
Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 2
This article discusses the features of the agro-industrial complex in order to improve the system of taxation of agricultural enterprises in Russia. The main purpose of the organization of the internal control system is to ensure compliance with the legislation of the Russian Federation and regulatory legal acts, as well as to confirm the implementation of reliable and timely accounting of the economic operations of the institution. The relevance and novelty of the study are determined by the possibility of solving the problem of taxation in the activities of the agro-industrial complex in order to support the agro-industrial complex in the regions as the main factor in ensuring the food security of the study area. This work was carried out using the methods of scientific research of the empirical and theoretical level: observation, description, analogy, generalization and comparison. Thus, the performance indicators obtained in the course of the study directly indicate the need to support the agro-industrial complex in the regions and improve the system of taxation of agricultural enterprises in Russia.
Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 3
Formation of a management system for specialized High-tech zones for the production of certain types of agricultural products of the South Siberian macro region
The article argues the expediency of developing management systems for specialized high-tech zones for the production of certain types of agricultural products of the South Siberian macro region, which should be aimed at improving production efficiency and harnessing the potential of the industry. The necessity of using an integrated approach in the public administration system for the development of specialized high-tech zones, taking into account the needs of all stakeholders, is substantiated. The author's classification of process control systems used in specialized high-tech zones for the production of agricultural products is presented. The instruments of strategic management of specialized high-tech zones for the production of certain types of agricultural products are systematized.
Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 4
Based on the study of the theoretical and methodological foundations of production, marketing, and increasing the competitiveness of organic crop products, the study formulated the principles for the effective development of the industry (the principle of balance between ecology and production, scientific validity of the choice of technological process, resource saving and cost minimization, target orientation of production to the consumer, intersectoral interaction, profit maximization while minimizing environmental damage, optimizing the ratio of income and expenses, efficient use of production factors, optimal management decision-making, social responsibility).The necessity of using innovative components in the formation of market conditions for organic products, which ensures the expansion of the range, is revealed. The concept of developing the competitive potential of agricultural producers of organic crop production through the combined use of natural, material, financial, labor resources, ensuring the involvement of unused reserves while maintaining a resource-saving effect, is outlined. The monitoring of indicators of the structure of organic crop production in the Russian Federation, according to regional data, revealed the most (pea) and least (milk thistle) crops that are popular for organic cultivation. The conclusion is formulated, confirming the options for resource-raw material, resource and resource-intellectual way of conducting organic land use with the definition of the latter as the most effective one that ensures the introduction of agro-innovations and the development of the competitive potential of the industry.