Issue № 6, June 2022, article № 3

Import Substitution: Opportunities and Limitations of Agricultural Organizations Development in the Face of External Shocks

The intensification of the import substitution policy in recent years is due to the development of the global geopolitical situation, accompanied by an aggravation of trade and economic relations. Russia has been under sanctions pressure on the economy for several years. Currently, the policy of import substitution is more successfully implemented in terms of providing the population with food products. The country in a fairly short time for most types of agricultural products and food has reached the parameters that were established in the Food Security Doctrine of the Russian Federation. In this regard, we consider agriculture as a driver for the implementation of the import substitution policy and a priority for the policy of reducing import dependence. The import substitution policy opens up new opportunities related to the development of technologies; industrialization; attracting investments, including through public-private partnerships; expansion of concessional lending to agricultural producers; the emergence of new enterprises and, as a result, the creation of new jobs; growth in exports of domestically produced goods; expanding opportunities for the emergence of new domestic products that are competitive in the world market. However, new opportunities also bring new threats. Subsidizing agricultural production is fraught with certain consequences: since individual companies are owned by foreign investors, it turns out that the state supports foreign capital. The result of limiting external competition may be the monopolization of the domestic market by large enterprises, which also carries certain risks.

Issue № 6, June 2022, article № 9

Actual Organizational and Economic Approaches to the Development of Domestic Breeding and Seed Production in Conditions of Sanction Pressure

The article considers organizational and economic approaches to import substitution of crop seeds in the Russian Federation, which are highly dependent on foreign producers. The risks, opportunities and prospects for the development of domestic crop production are shown in connection with the negative consequences of the introduction of tough anti-Russian sanctions. In accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 5 of the Federal Law "On Seed Production," the coordination of scientific research in the field of seed production is entrusted by the Government of the Russian Federation to the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia. A conceptual model of crop breeding and seed production in the country was proposed and proposals were made for its adaptation to the conditions for increasing risks and uncertainties associated with economic sanctions of the collective West. The importance of scientific, technical and personnel potential in the development of domestic breeding and seed production was noted. The significance of the national project "Science and Universities" in the modernization and creation of breeding and seed and breeding centers in the country is shown. The role of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2025 (hereinafter referred to as the FNTP) has been determined, which is designed to remove the dependence of domestic agricultural production on Western technologies in crop production, animal husbandry, feed production, storage, quality control and processing of agricultural products. Organizational and economic approaches to the development of domestic breeding and seed production of crops in the context of unprecedented Western sanctions were analyzed and proposed for development.