Яндекс.Метрика

Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 16

Contribution of the regions to the implementation of the State Program of Integrated rural development

It is important to reinforce the program-target approach used by the public authorities in the management of rural development with relevant monitoring and analysis methods. The article analyzes the first results of the implementation of the State Program of integrated development of rural territories by means of the author's methodology. Taking into account the achieved level and dynamics of target indicators, the best regional practices of integrated rural development are highlighted. The Stavropol Territory, the Orel Region and the Rostov Region were three times among the best regions. Twice – Krasnodar Territory, Lipetsk Region, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Bryansk Region, Republic of Adygea, Republic of Crimea. Analysis of the dynamics and structure of the integrated trend of integrated rural development shows that the main positive changes in the composition of the targets of the State Program occur with the proportion of comfortable housing. This is mainly due to the fact that there are significant opportunities for the growth of this indicator. Differentiation of regions by the level of provision of rural residents with comfortable housing is significantly higher than differentiation by other target indicators. The emerging increase in the share of comfortable housing in rural settlements is the main positive result of the first two years of the implementation of the State Program for the Integrated Development of Rural Areas. In turn, monitoring changes in the actual values of target indicators in the regions allows you to form an information base for activating the "stimulation" function. It is advisable to allocate annual grants to the subjects of the Russian Federation in two categories: 1) for the achieved level of integrated development of rural territories; 2) for the best dynamics of integrated development of rural territories.

Issue № 6, June 2023, article № 17

Land resource in the agri-food strategy of Russia and China

The deterioration of agricultural lands in the world and their reduction exacerbates the issue of world food security, and the food problem becomes not only economic, but also political. The time will come when the economic and political power of states will largely be determined by their land resources. Under the conditions of Western sanctions, the "eastern" vector of Russia's agrarian economy has intensified. The article gives a general assessment of the use of agricultural lands of two world powers – Russia and China. Russia is the leader in the area of land resources. In recent years, there has been a tendency to reduce agricultural land in Russia while increasing it in China. Agricultural land is not used fully rationally and efficiently; the area of arable land has significantly decreased, while the per capita availability of arable land in China is many times lower than in Russia. China's agriculture is developing more intensively, thanks to which the volume of food production is significantly higher than Russian, both in general and per hectare of agricultural land. In Russia, the level of technical equipment of agriculture is several times lower than in China, which requires reasonable government intervention in regulating the development of the agro-food sector. The State should, and in exceptional cases, is obliged to provide agricultural producers with monetary and material and technical resources that create the potential for rational and efficient use of land. The gradual "depopulation" of rural areas and the non-use of land, especially in the Far Eastern regions of Russia, with a significant shortage of agricultural land in China, increases its demand for the provision of Russian land for long-term lease, which requires ensuring safe, economical exploitation of agricultural land, preserving their fertility for future generations. Not all countries of the world have such a reserve of land as Russia. It should be spent responsibly, and the land, and in general, the agri-food strategy should be planned taking into account all opportunities and threats.

Issue № 5, May 2023, article № 1

Accelerated Implementation of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture as a strategic direction of import substitution in the industry

In modern geopolitical conditions, ensuring technological sovereignty in the agricultural sector of the country directly depends on the speed of implementation of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2030 (hereinafter-the FNTP). The high dependence of the domestic agro-industrial complex on the technologies of foreign countries was noted, which, according to preliminary data, amounted to about 40 percent in 2022. In these difficult conditions, the Ministry of Education and Science, together with the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia, are implementing the FNTP, the implementation of which was discussed during parliamentary hearings in the State Duma of the Russian Federation on March 15, 2023. The necessity of developing and implementing a set of measures aimed at creating and introducing competitive domestic technologies in the field of breeding both in crop production and in the livestock industry in close cooperation between the state, science and business is substantiated. It is shown that in the conditions of external restrictions, the agricultural sector of the country faced an increase in prices for fertilizers, seeds, technical means of production, which combined with the problem of overcoming the sanctions of unfriendly states and complicated logistics. The analysis of the implementation of the existing FNTP programs and those planned for approval in 2023 with the calculation of the planned values of self-sufficiency of the agricultural production of the country with both seeds of domestic selection and breeding products was carried out. A set of priority organizational, economic and regulatory measures to accelerate the implementation of the results of the FNTP in the real sector of the economy has been developed and proposed.

Issue № 5, May 2023, article № 2

Assessment of state financial support for small agricultural entrepreneurship of the Leningrad region

This article is devoted to the assessment of state financial support for small agricultural businesses of the Leningrad region. It has been established that in the dynamics of the annual fund of support provided by the small agricultural business of the region under the main subprogram of support for the small forms of management, a pendulum swing is observed, reaching 235.64 million rubles in 2021. The general fund of the area of support provided to the subjects of the small agribusiness, throughout the program "Development of Agriculture", has been growing since 2018, amounting to 457.489 million rubles at the end of 2021, although in real terms it has been declining since 2020. The share of the annual support fund for small agribusiness entities in the total annual support for agricultural producers in the region increased by 92,8% from 2015 to 2021, but still remains low (8,1% at the end of 2021). The most "popular" form of support for the region's small agribusiness is grant support. In the structure of grant support for farmers, over the analyzed period, the main share of payments falls on grants to family farms, against the background of a decrease in the number of those supported under this program. In general, the level of support for small business in agriculture in the Leningrad Region, both in terms of the amount of support and the number of supported, remains clearly insufficient for development in the field of farming and achieving the goals of sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas.

Issue № 5, May 2023, article № 6

Assessment of the state of innovation activity in the agricultural sector of the economy

Modern trends in the development of innovation activity are associated with an unprecedented increase in uncertainty and the expansion of the risks of introducing innovations. The influence of the combination of the most significant factors on the state of the national innovation system in recent years has manifested itself in a combination of parameters for reducing the resource base and increasing the effectiveness of innovations, the multidirectional nature of the change in the system of indicators led to the preservation of a low level of use of innovative potential. Opportunities for the implementation of innovative activities were predetermined by regional and sectoral characteristics. Regional specificity, first of all, was revealed in a significant differentiation in the financing of innovative activities in terms of volumes and directions of investment in innovative development in the federal districts and constituent entities of Russia. The existing asymmetry in the cost structure for innovations in the business sector has shown the predominance of demand for second-order innovations as part of the agrarians' desire to upgrade the material and technical base. As a result, there was a decrease in the intensity of innovation activity (both in terms of financing innovations and in the production of innovative products), accompanied by an increase in the energy intensity of labor and the efficiency of agricultural production. The positive impact of modernization at the beginning of 2023, in the context of tightening external control over compliance with sanctions, formed a managerial vector in the corporate sector to maintain current production and market positions.