Яндекс.Метрика

Issue № 5, May 2024, article № 14

Improving program-target planning for rural territories development

Rural areas make up a significant part of Russia's space, and the rural population makes up a significant proportion of the country's inhabitants. In recent years, negative demographic trends have been observed in rural areas: a decrease in the number of residents due to natural decline and migration outflow, and an aging population. Rural areas continue to remain not the most attractive space for people to live due to insufficient development of engineering and social infrastructure, quality of housing, and lack of sources of income. The problems of rural development are shown in the article using the example of one of the central European regions of Russia - the Kostroma region. A systematization of state programs for the development of rural areas adopted since the early 2000s, their evolution, a list of tasks they are aimed at solving, and target guidelines have been carried out. The current concepts of program-targeted planning for the development of rural areas are outlined, such as the integrated development of rural areas and the selection of territories of preferential development, which simultaneously ensures the most efficient expenditure of budget funds and the formation of an integral rural territory. Ideas for improving the methodology for selecting support settlements for the development of rural areas are proposed. It is recommended to include in the selection an informal criterion that characterizes the prospects for the development of the territory and allows taking into account the specific conditions of specific regions.

Issue № 5, May 2024, article № 15

Assessment of the rural settlement system in the Central Chernozem macro-region of Russia

Indicators of the rural settlement system are crucial for understanding the spatial distribution of population, which has a significant impact on people's lives and livelihoods. An analysis of the settlement system in the Central Chernozem region from 1959 to 2022 revealed an increase in the number of small and abandoned rural settlements, with a slight rise in the number of larger ones. This trend leads to depopulation in rural areas, spatial polarization, and compression.Rural residents are primarily moving to larger, more prosperous rural settlements due to improved living conditions. However, these larger settlements often have limited infrastructure, leading to low connectivity in a context of limited transportation accessibility. This results in a situation where remote settlements face challenges in maintaining connectivity.Despite the fact that the number of rural settlements in Russia, which decreased significantly between 1959 and 2003, has not changed significantly in the past two decades, there has been a 22% decrease in their population and a 4.7% increase in the proportion of empty settlements. As a result of territorial and administrative reforms, the unification of smaller settlements into larger ones did not lead to an increase in the number of people living in rural areas, but rather to a significant concentration of people in a limited number of urban areas. For the past 60 years, interregional imbalances in the settlement system of the Central Black Earth region have persisted, with some rural areas in the Tambov, Kursk, Belgorod, and Lipetsk regions transforming into urban areas, while in the Voronezh region, against the backdrop of the formation of larger rural settlements, much of the rest of the territory has become depopulated.

Issue № 5, May 2024, article № 16

Development of youth entrepreneurship in rural areas

The purpose of this study is to analyze the features of rural entrepreneurship development and mechanisms for involving the younger generation in this process. The solution of the problem of providing labor employment in the youth in rural areas will help to stop the migration processes that lead in the long term to the complete degradation of Russian villages. In the process of preparing the article the authors used materials of the Federal State Statistics Service, works of Russian and foreign scientists on the problems of entrepreneurship development in rural areas. The article analyzes the evolution of the formation of the distinctive features of entrepreneurial activity, as a result of which it was established that entrepreneurship is a special phenomenon based on the protection of private property rights, freedom in decision-making, as well as adherence to moral and ethical values, the merit of the latter is that they guide and stimulate its activity towards the development of socially oriented business. It is revealed that Russia seeks to turn small and medium business into a driver of economic development, ensuring high growth rates, as well as forming a new social culture. The paper substantiates the idea that the involvement of young people in the process of entrepreneurship will contribute to the solution of important socio-economic tasks of the state. This is due to the fact that it is often young people who initiate and stimulate innovative activity, offer non-standard solutions to current problems of national economic development. It was found that the lack of sufficient professional experience, start-up capital, knowledge of intellectual property protection and patent law, bureaucratic and corruption barriers are constraints to the development of youth entrepreneurship. It is possible to overcome all these limitations if the state assists young people in their aspiration to start their own business. It is shown that despite the active support of youth entrepreneurship, there is no single information platform where one could get comprehensive information on the preparation and implementation of startups and measures to support them on a "one-stop-shop" basis. It is concluded that it is necessary to create an ecosystem for the development of youth entrepreneurship, which will allow to optimize the processes of interaction between all stakeholders involved in it, as well as to make information on the results of its work accessible and transparent.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 1

Problems of Innovation and Investment Support of Agriculture

The main problems of investing in the innovative development of the agro-food complex of Russia are considered. Among other things, the instability of the dynamics of investments in fixed assets, a decrease in the share of investments in agriculture in total investments in the country's economy to 3.2%, the food industry to 1.3%, significant differentiation of the regions of the Russian Federation in terms of investment provision, the use of most of the investments to replace worn-out fixed assets. Despite the increase in the cost of innovative activities in agriculture to 49.0 billion rubles. In 2022, the level of innovative activity of agricultural producers was lower than the national average and amounted to 8.7%. The share of innovative products in the total volume of agricultural production is growing weakly. The main factors influencing the development of innovative and investment activities in agriculture and the food industry of the Siberian Federal District are highlighted: increasing the profitability of agro-industrial production, attracting additional investments in the agro-food complex, including from friendly BRICS countries, the EAEU and others. The necessity of modernization of the material and technical base in accordance with the model of innovative development of the agro-industrial complex is shown. The main directions of investment in the innovative development of agriculture in the region are proposed, including increasing investments in human capital, the development of resource-saving and digital agrotechnologies, and environmental protection in the agricultural sector.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 2

Vertical integration in breeding and seed production as a driver for the development of domestic crop production

The work is devoted to the issues of neoindustrialization of domestic crop production based on the creation of high-tech products in breeding and seed production. The high dependence of the industry on foreign-selected seeds was noted, which increased 2.7 times only from 2016 to 2022. The need for a system of expanded reproduction of the achievements of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2030, in which the production of high–tech products should be brought into full compliance with the law of vertical integration, is substantiated. The reasons for the slow recovery of Russian breeding are revealed, primarily due to insufficient financing of both the program itself and agricultural science in general, in comparison with foreign multinational breeding companies. In addition, this is due to imperfect legislation in the field of seed breeding, a mechanism for financing complex scientific and technical projects, and incomplete localization of seed production by foreign companies in the country. It is proved that the lack of seeds leads to untimely variety change and variety renewal in the real sector of the economy. It is shown that the selection process of agricultural crops is a complex system that, in modern conditions of scientific and technological progress, should take place on the basis of vertical integration, which is part of the organizational mechanism of neo-industrialization, effective use of the material and technical base, living and materialized labor and return on capital investments. As a result of the large-scale industrialization of the research and development sector of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, 50 agricultural research centers and 30 interdisciplinary land-secured experimental farms for primary seed production of basic crops have been created in 55 regions of the country. The material base of scientific organizations has been strengthened (114 new laboratories have been created, 86 of which are engaged in research in the field of crop production and biotechnology), human resources have been strengthened (1,100 new researchers have been attracted; the average age in scientific organizations was 47 years). Additional measures have been developed and proposed to accelerate the implementation of breeding achievements in the real sector of the country's economy, which will reduce the dependence of domestic agricultural business on foreign technologies, this is especially important in difficult conditions of sanctions pressure.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 5

Formation of human capital of agro-industrial complex in the industrial region (Kemerovo region – Kuzbass case study)

Nowadays ensuring the country's food security is one of the most important issues facing the state. Modern realities form the features of the agro-industrial complex transformation, primarily related to the digitalization of socio-economic processes, defining new requirements for the human capital of the sectors of the agro-industrial complex. The issues of formation and development of human capital are especially acute in agriculture, because significant part of agriculture works can be carried out in rural areas. The article provides an analysis of approaches to the development of human capital in the context of the agriculture digital transformation, especially at the regional level, since regions have different industry orientations, as well as differences in socio-economic and natural-geographical conditions. The authors focus on the issue of the need for human capital in agriculture and rural areas in industrial regions, which is associated with a high degree of urbanization, aging of rural personnel, as well as the low popularity of agricultural education. The authors have identified the features of the formation of human capital in industrial regions based on the materials of the Kemerovo region – Kuzbass. As a result of the study, demographic features were identified that reflect the problem of the staffing of the agro-industrial complex: a low proportion of the rural population and a reduced reproduction of the rural population. The decline in the population under the age of working age is increasing. There was an increase in demand for specialists with higher education in the type of economic activity "agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing and fish farming" with developed digital competencies. The article suggests measures aimed at the formation of the agriculture human capital in the industrial region. They should include two broadened areas: measures to reduce disparities in the development of rural and urban settlements and measures focused on the development of the human potential.

Issue № 4, April 2024, article № 6

Problems and prospects for the development of horticulture in households of the population

The article considers the problems of horticulture development in the households of the population and substantiates the directions of its development in the future. In Russia, the problem of food security in the field of fruit consumption is acute. An important role in solving this problem is assigned to households of the population. They produce 2,555.2 thousand tons, or 59.8% of the gross harvest of fruits and berries, including berries - 671.3 thousand tons, or 97.3%, stone fruits – 575.8 thousand tons, or 88.5%. Over the years of the implementation of the State Program for the Development of agriculture in these farms, the production of fruit and berry products increased by 495.5 thousand tons, or by 24.1% as a result of an increase in the yield of perennial plantations from 76.3 to 101.3 c from 1 ha, or by 10.4% while reducing their total area by 32.1 thousand hectares, or by 32.8%. Households have reserves for increasing the production of fruit and berry products by increasing the area of berry gardens, especially the area of stone fruit and berry crops, and increasing their productivity. The further development of horticulture in these farms will be facilitated by the creation of consumer cooperatives for the storage, processing and marketing of fruits and berries, which will be engaged in their procurement, processing and sale, and the allocation of subsidies to citizens who maintain personal subsidiary plots and pay tax on professional income (self-employed) for reimbursement part of the cost of increasing the production of fruits and berries.