Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 6
The Russian Federation has great land potential. However, currently there is a reduction in agricultural land, their exclusion from agricultural turnover, transfer to non-agricultural land. In modern conditions, the introduction of informatization and innovations in the production process has become an important factor in the development of agricultural organizations, the effective use and reproduction of agricultural land resources. However, the existing system of indicators for assessing the efficiency of the use and reproduction of agricultural land resources includes indicators of land productivity and composition, but does not characterize this process in terms of information and innovative development. The article proposed an expanded system of indicators of the efficiency of the use and reproduction of agricultural land resources by including indicators of innovative development. The presented methodology for assessing the efficiency of the use and reproduction of agricultural land resources has been tested on the example of the organization of the Nizhny Novgorod region.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 7
Role of Domestic Agrarian Science and Education in the Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex Under Western Sanctions: Innovation-Oriented Approach
The article is devoted to the role of domestic agrarian science and education in the development of the country's agro-industrial complex in the context of unprecedented Western sanctions. The restrictions and risks of both agricultural producers and industry science related to the mobilization economy have been identified. The increase in agricultural production in the country is largely due to an increase in labour productivity in the industry. The need to create technological clusters at agricultural universities of the country on the basis of public-private partnership is justified. The successful development of the country's agricultural sector in "new conditions" is impossible without the involvement and interest of young and qualified personnel (Priority 2030 program, Agricultural Science initiative - a step into the future development of the agro-industrial complex). Amendments to the Federal Law "On Science and State Scientific and Technological Policy" of 23.08.1996 have been proposed, as well as in the Tax Code of the Russian Federation of July 17, 1998 in order to increase the resource and scientific potential of universities and research institutes of the agricultural profile. The significance of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Agriculture for 2017-2025 (hereinafter referred to as the FNTP) in the context of the sanctions struggle is shown. The need to attract private investment in agricultural science has been proven, since the ratio of domestic research and development costs in agriculture to the gross added value created in the industry is almost 1.5 times lower than the same indicator in science as a whole. Concern was expressed about the instability in the personnel support of the domestic agricultural sector of the economy, associated with low wages and poor working and living conditions in rural areas. In conclusion, a set of priority anti-sanction measures aimed at the development of the agricultural sector is given, which can be successfully used in the development of the concept of innovative development of the Russian agro-industrial complex for the medium and long term.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 8
Agricultural production, like any commercial production, is characterized by exposure to the risks of financial condition deterioration, up to bankruptcy and liquidation of enterprises. A study of the risk of bankruptcy probability was conducted using three popular methods among 57 randomly selected agricultural enterprises of the Ulyanovsk region. Various methods such as analysis, synthesis, grouping, etc. were used in the study. The study showed that in 2020 about 21% of the randomly selected enterprises (12 out of 57) had a high risk of bankruptcy probability. Upon a more detailed study of 2 crisis enterprises, it was revealed that in most cases their financial indicators were significantly lower than the industry average. To improve the financial condition of the analyzed organizations, appropriate financial recovery procedures have been proposed.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 9
Today, the issue of ensuring food security is given priority by the state. The State, performing a social function, is obliged to provide the population of its country with physical and economic access to the necessary food. Under the conditions of sanctions and restrictions on foreign trade, the main problem is to achieve the necessary level of self-sufficiency in basic types of food. These circumstances determine the relevance of the study. The article analyzes the level of consumption of basic foodstuffs (using milk as an example), considers the share of food purchase expenses, calculates group indices of food security in the context of the subjects of the Volga Federal District, and assesses the level of food security of the Ulyanovsk region. In terms of food security, the Ulyanovsk region ranks only 11th among the 14 regions analyzed. The main areas of increasing the level of food security in the region in the present conditions are improving the efficiency of agricultural production and measures to preserve and increase real incomes of the population.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 10
Improvement of Tools to Reduce the Likelihood of Bankruptcy of Agricultural Organizations in the Region
The relevance of the chosen study lies in the fact that the problem of the probability of bankruptcy plays a huge role in assessing the financial and economic situation and investment attractiveness of agricultural enterprises and organizations, since this industry is the most risky and requires constant monitoring of the main financial and economic indicators of their activities. In the Ulyanovsk region, there are about 20% of unprofitable agricultural organizations, each of which risks being on the verge of bankruptcy. The greatest risk of bankruptcy is inherent in organizations of the Starokulatkinsky, Baryshsky and Sursky districts. The article presents measures to reduce the probability of bankruptcy of agricultural organizations of the Ulyanovsk region. The recommended risk control and prevention system will allow any agricultural producer to receive a comprehensive assessment of their financial condition and assess the likelihood of bankruptcy.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 11
Infrastructure And Logistics Support of Export Supplies of Russian Grain: State and Prospects of Development
Improving logistics in order to ensure the competitiveness of grain exports is of fundamental importance for Russia, as well as the volume of grain production and its quality. The main reasons for high logistics costs largely lie in the inefficient operation of transport, the shortage of grain storage capacities, as well as their low technological state and uneven territorial distribution. In addition to eliminating the above reasons, the implementation of the task of increasing exports and increasing the competitiveness of Russian grain in foreign markets will be facilitated by integration solutions in the development of the infrastructure and transport and logistics potential of the agro-industrial complex in general and its grain segment in particular. Today we can talk about the trends in the formation of a new logistics reality in our country in the conditions of a mobilization economy.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 12
In modern conditions of development, the influence of competition and the general situation in the grain product sub complex on the strategic attractiveness of grain producers is increasing. The weakness of the position of most of the agricultural enterprises involved in the production of grain is due to the low level of their adaptation to the dynamics of market conditions, the lack of a constructive competitive policy. The competitiveness of grain production of agricultural enterprises is determined by the quality of products, the cost of production and the selling price of grain and is associated with the level of efficiency of the grain industry. In this regard, the study seems appropriate to identify the determining factors of the competitiveness of grain production. The multifactorial modeling is based on technological, production and economic indices of grain production competitiveness. The conducted studies have shown that the value of the technological index is determined by the provision of the industry with labour resources and grain harvesters, the production index - by the gross harvest and the cost of grain, the economic index - by the volume of production and profit from the sale of grain per 1 ha of grain crops.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 13
Sunflower is the main oilseed crop in the Russian Federation, it accounts for 75% of the area of all oilseeds and up to 90% of vegetable oil produced in the country. The fat-and-oil sub complex is a highly profitable, export-oriented sphere of the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation. However, despite the presence of favourable trends in the development of the fat-and-oil sub complex, the potential of oil processing enterprises is not used at full capacity, which is due to an insufficiently developed raw material base. Sunflower is one of the highly productive crops in the Ulyanovsk region. Ranking of municipalities of the Ulyanovsk region by the area of sunflower crops in agricultural organizations allowed us to identify four groups. In some areas, the growth of the sown area of crops in agricultural organizations has exceeded more than 2 times in 10 years.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 14
Efficiently functioning grain industry, due to the multitude of inter-industry relations, makes it possible to form a large part of the food supply of the country and its population. Food supply is formed not only at the expense of grain processing products, but also at the expense of livestock products, for which the grain industry is the main supplier of concentrated feed with high protein content. The study, identification and justification of development trends in the grain industry are the key to understanding the processes taking place in the industry. Based on statistical data from 1951 to 2020, the phases of economic growth and decline in grain production in the Russian Federation and the Nizhny Novgorod region, as well as the features of their course in different territories, were identified. Grain production at the level of the country and the region is a system, the elements of which are agricultural organizations with the economic cycles occurring in them. Using harmonic analysis, the effect in grain production of five main waves with a cyclic structure was revealed. The description of the dynamics of the actual size of the gross grain harvest and its size per capita by the waves found is more than 95%. The determination of cyclic patterns in grain production in the Russian Federation and its regions makes it possible to predict the development of the grain industry and timely apply economic measures in accordance with the predicted results of possible scenarios of functioning.
Issue № 5, May 2022, article № 15
Assessment of the Financial Condition of Agricultural Organizations Depending on the Type of Activity
The indicators of analysis of the financial condition of agricultural organizations depend on the peculiarities of agricultural production - the duration of the production cycle, the seasonality of production, a high share of low-liquid property, a high share of borrowed funds, and other factors. This study analyzed the financial condition of agricultural organizations, taking into account their specialization and type of activity in accordance with OKVED. Financial ratios were determined for organizations specializing in the production of crop products (7 types) and livestock products (6 types). The obtained values of financial coefficients were compared with regulatory ones. As initial data, the database of accounting and statistical reporting of Testfirm organizations was used. Poor financial condition of organizations specializing in the cultivation of fibrous pre-wild crops and small organizations engaged in pig breeding. The best financial conditions have agricultural organizations specializing in the cultivation of grain. This is typical for organizations of different sizes; however, liquidity and profitability indicators deteriorate with a decrease in the size of grain-producing organizations. In animal husbandry, organizations have unsatisfactory liquidity indicators and very low profitability indicators for almost all analyzed activities.